Marathas played an important role in the history of India. Shahji Bonsle had two popular sons namely Shivaji and Venkaji. Shivaji established a separate Maratha kingdom in the Maharastra region. Venkaji established a Maratha kingdom in Tanjore region of Tamil country.
When Sarfoji II was relieved from the political activities he developed interest in English literature and engaged himself in the scholarly activities. He collected books, palm leaves manuscripts, old records and preserved them in Saraswathi mahal. Collections covered the subjects of Vedanda, Kaviya, Grammar, Music, Dance, Astronomy, Medicine and Architecture. With huge collections of literature and other sources Saraswathi mahal became centre of learning and research Institute. It had huge collections of Marathi and Sanskrit manuscripts palm leaves are preserved there. Books in English, French, German, Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit languages are arranged in ten shelves. In 1805 Safroji II established a printing press at Tanjore.
The important of the Tanjore Maratha rule
Tanjore Marathas ruled for nearly 180 years. They ruled the most fertile Tanjore region of the Tamilnadu. They patronized literature, art and architecture during their period. The Tanjore Maratha rule established a very big social and cultural impact in the Tamil Society Saraswathy Mahal will speak the glory of Tanjore Maratha rule for ever.
Establishment of Maratha rule in Tanjore
Shivaji’s father Shahji’s was serving as a general under the sultan of Bijapur. Sultan captured Tanjore. Ginjee and the Carnatic region and made shahji as governor of that region. Venkaji also served under the Bijapur Sultan.
A conflict between Chokkanathanayak of Madurai and his governor Alagirinayak of Tanjore was brought to the notice of the Bijapur Sultan. Adilshah the Bijapur Sultan sent his army under the leadership of Venkaji in support of Chokkanathanayak. \/enkaji defeated Alagirinayak at the battle of Ayyampet and made Sengamaladas as nayak of Tanjore. Sultan made Venkaji as Jagirdar of Karnataka. When Adilshah passed away Venkaji removed Sengamala das and occupied the throne. Venkaji established the Maratha rule in Tamilnadu in 1675 AD.