LITERATURE DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE CHOLAS
The development of literature, art and architecture of the Chola period promoted the cultural value of the Chola rule. The Cholas made lot of improvements in these fields. The temples built by the Cholas increased the value of the bakthi culture of Tamil country. The development of the Chola literature, art and architecture created a profound impact on the cultural development of the Tamil country.
The Chola rule marked a milestone in the history of Tamil literature. The Chola kings gave many concessions and patronage to Tamil scholars and writers. Many great Tamil poets namely, Kalladanar, Kambar, Pugalandhi, Ottakoothar, Sekkilar, Avvaiyar, Thirutakkadevar lived during the period of Chola period. Literary styles like epics, parani, kovai, ula, kalambakam, pillaitamil and new works on grammar were famous during that period. Writing meikkirthis, narration of historical incidents, singing songs on religious Heros, were new literary trends of that time. Kalladanar wrote Kalladam about lord Siva. Thiruttakkadevar wrote Seevagasinthamani to spread the idea of Jainism among the Tamil people. This work is respected and ranked as one of the mahakaviyams in Tamil. Jayamkondan composed Kalingathuparani during the period of Kulothunga I. It talks about second kalinga war.
Ottakoothar was a court poet of three Chola kings namely Vikrama Chola. Kulotunga-II and Rajaraja II. He wrote poems in praise of these three kings namely Vikrama Cholan Ula, Kulothunga Cholan Ula and Rajarajan Ula. Ottakoothar had also written Kulothungan Pillai Tamil in praise of Chola king Kulothunga II and Saraswathy Andhadhi in praise of Saraswathi the Goddess of learning.
Kambar wrote Kambaramayanam. King Kulotunga-III donated Kambanadu to Kambar. The king also conferred the title Kavichakkravarthi on Kambar. Kambar had also written Sadagopar andhadhi. Mummani kovai. Sekkilar wrote Periya puranam during the period of Kulothunga-II. Pugalendhi composed Nalavenba Avvaiyar wrote Aathichudi and Kondrai vendam. Thirugnasambandar wrote Thevaram.
Kulothungan kovai and Thanjaivanan kovai are famous Tamil literature of that period. Great epics namely Valayapathi, Kundalakesi, Viracholivam, Nannool belong to this period. Thevaram. Nandikalambagam. Bharatha venba and Sivgnanabodam are important literature works of this period. The Chola literature increased the cultural values of the Chola society.